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Protocols & Standards

A Gold Standard for Climate Action

IWCA’s standards are science-based and rigorous. We regularly consult leading global standards and protocols on GHG emissions to develop our own membership requirements and guidance for member wineries.

Close up of green grapes at Ridge Vineyards, IWCA winery in California, United States.

GHG Protocol

IWCA’s GHG inventory standards align with the GHG Protocol, with the two exceptions of how we account for refrigerant emissions and energy used to cool and store wine (details below).

About the GHG Protocol

The GHG Protocol is the world's most widely used greenhouse gas accounting standard. A joint initiative of World Resources Institute and WBCSD, the GHG Protocol provides accounting and reporting standards, sector guidance, calculation tools, and trainings for businesses and local and national governments.

Key GHG Protocol Resources

Scope 2 Calculation Guidance

Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard

Scope 3 Calculation Guidance

Agriculture Guidance

IWCA’s Exceptions to the GHG Protocol

IWCA’s GHG policies and tools align with the GHG Protocol, with two exceptions:

  • Accounting for refrigerant emissions: Given the large impact of refrigerants on wineries’ carbon footprints, IWCA requires our wineries to include all refrigerant emissions in their Scope 1 calculations. This includes emissions from GHGs not covered by the Kyoto Protocol. This differs from the GHG Protocol, which states that non-Kyoto emissions should be reported separately from Scope 1 emissions.

  • Accounting for retailer and home energy use to store and cool wine: To totally close the life cycle of wine products, IWCA requires all wineries to consider all emissions related to the energy consumed at the shop/supermarket — and energy consumed to cool wine before use — in their Scope 3 calculations. This differs from the GHG Protocol, which deems accounting for such emissions as optional.


The GHG Protocol is presently drafting guidance on emissions and removals from land use—an area on which we welcome standardized, science-based guidance. At present, in the absence of such guidance, IWCA has not adopted a policy on carbon sequestration, biogenic emissions, and CO2 removals. IWCA awaits finalization of the GHG Protocol guidance to determine whether to update our policies. This guidance is expected in early 2023.

ISO-14064 Standard

IWCA GHG guidance and GHG calculators adhere to the ISO-14064 standard. Furthermore, to achieve and maintain IWCA membership, wineries must have their GHG inventories verified to the ISO-14064-1 standard, working with an ISO-14064-3-accredited auditor. 

About the ISO-14064 Standard

ISO-14064 is a three-part international standard—developed and published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)—that provides a framework for organizations and companies looking to quantify and reduce GHG emissions.

Key ISO-14064 Resources

ISO-14064 Part 1: Organizational GHG emissions quantification and reporting

ISO-14064 Part 3: GHG inventory verification

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